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16 Black Innovators Who Changed Food Forever

Macaroni and cheese. Ice cream. French fries. Jack Daniel’s whisky. Frozen foods in general.

We wouldn’t have any of the above foods, plus many others, were it not for Black food innovators and figureheads that have made significant contributions and altered the way we eat and make food today.

Below are just some of the stories of these incredibly talented and inspiring individuals. Some of these names came from research via the New York Times and Food and Wine, but we’ve also included historical sourcing and context for each person as well. You can click on their names to view those original pieces.

Nathan “Nearest” Green

Known as “Uncle Nearest,” Nathan Green was a skilled distiller who mastered the “Lincoln County” process. This method of distilling is thought by food historians and whiskey experts alike to have been brought in by slaves, and uses charcoal to filter and purify foods. The “Lincoln County” process, in particular, uses sugar maple charcoal to filter bourbon.

Green trained hired hand Jasper Newton Daniel (known to the world as “Jack Daniel”) while working on a priest’s distillery in Lynchburg, Tennessee. Daniel eventually made him the first master distiller of Jack Daniel’s, the famous Tennessee whisky many people drink today.

While Jack Daniel’s shares the story of Green on their website, an all minority-led whisky brand named “Uncle Nearest” continues to build upon his legacy with spirits that use the same distilling technique, but feature Green’s name on the bottle.

James Hemings

While Thomas Jefferson is sometimes credited with bringing foods like mac & cheese and ice cream to the United States, Hemings was the one who actually learned to make them. A slave in the ownership of Jefferson prior to his presidency, Hemings traveled with him to France in 1784 specifically to learn the art of French cuisine.

Hemings became the first American trained as a French chef in history as a result, bringing back several dishes to the United States. French fries, ice cream, macaroni and cheese, creme brulee, French meringues, and French whipped cream are just a few examples. These dishes and others would be incorporated in Hemings’ signature half-French, half-Virginian style of cooking he became renowned for.

Hemings would later also cook one of the most famous dinners in American history: the one between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton that settled who would pay for the Revolutionary War and established Washington, D.C. as the United States’ capital. He eventually was freed by Jefferson in 1796.

Zephyr Wright

Zephyr Wright was the personal chef for President Lyndon B. Johnson and his family for over twenty years. It was her cooking that made the Johnson household a popular one for D.C. dinner parties.

Wright would follow Johnson to the White House during his tenure, and was in charge of the home cooking in the White House kitchen. She would also temporarily cook all meals, including VIP ones, in between the tenures of two White House Executive Chefs.

Wright is thought to have heavily influenced Johnson’s support for the Civil Rights Act of 1964,. Wright was known to have spoken up to the President during his time in Congress about the injustices she faced road tripping between Texas and D.C. during congressional recesses, saying that she was not allowed to use the bathroom in areas she was driving through, and couldn’t stop off and eat at restaurants. President Johnson reportedly used some of her stories to convince Congress to sign the bill. He would also give her a White House pen when the act was signed into law.

Leah Chase

The Queen of Creole Cuisine, Leah Chase was the heart and soul of Dooky Chase’s restaurant in New Orleans across seven decades. Known for her fried chicken, red beans and rice, gumbo, and other classics, Chase started out in the 1940s when she got a job as a server at a restaurant. She eventually took over the helm and made it a safe haven for anyone to come and eat at.

Dooky Chase’s was known as one of the few places that it was publicly okay for races to mix at, since the cops wouldn’t bother activists inside the restaurant. Thus, leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, including local leaders and national ones like Martin Luther King Jr., would often strategize while eating there.

Chase would go on to serve presidents like Barack Obama and George W. Bush, along with Associate Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall and other influential figures. Disney has even made a movie with a character inspired by her: Princess Tiana of Princess and the Frog.

Abby Fisher

Around the early 1880s, Abby Fisher was known for her award-winning pickles and the Mrs. Abby Fisher Pickle Company in San Francisco. She had at least 35 years of cooking experience, some estimates had it, and the awards she won for her food reflected that.

However, Fisher is probably best known for publishing one of the first cookbooks ever authored by an African-American woman. The book, called What Mrs. Fisher Knows About Old Southern Cooking, contains over 160 recipes and uses the dictated words of Fisher herself.

The cookbook surged in popularity in the late 20th century when a publisher began reprinting it in 1995. Today, it offers a window into these early recipes that places like museums try to recreate for guests to sample.

Edna Lewis

Edna Lewis became a legend while she cooked at Cafe Nicholson in Midtown Manhattan starting in 1949. Her fame and Southern recipes led to guests like Marlon Brando, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Salvador Dali showing up for dinner. After stepping away from the chef’s role (as an active partner) in 1952, she would lecture at the American Museum of Natural History while working as a chef and private caterer.

Lewis would later become inspired to write her first cookbook as demand for them grew in 1972. She was one of the first African-American women from the South that would publish a cookbook that did not hide her name, gender, or race. She would go on to publish more in the future, eventually becoming known as the Grand Dame and Grand Doyenne of Southern cooking.

Larry James and Jereline Bethune

The Bethune family, to this day, runs Brenda’s Bar-Be-Que Pit in Montgomery, Alabama. Open since 1942, the restaurant would become an important hub for those in the Civil Rights Movement.

After Rosa Parks infamously refused to give up her seat on a Montgomery bus, Larry James and Jereline Bethune were instrumental in using their restaurant to organize bus boycott efforts around the city. As the movement continued and literacy test laws (meant to curtail the Black vote) were introduced, Jereline would also quietly hold lessons teaching other African-Americans how to read. They were then able to pass these literacy tests and go out and vote.

Alfred L. Cralle

Ice cream today would not be the same without the work of Alfred Cralle. Born just after the Civil War, he had an affinity for mechanics as a young age, and would go study at Wayland Seminary, a school set up after the Civil War to educate newly freed African-Americans.

Cralle would go on to work as a porter at a drugstore and a hotel in Philadelphia, and developed the idea of the ice cream scoop while watching people struggle using two different spoons to get the ice cream into cones. Cralle’s mechanical inventional, which is the basis of how ice cream scoops work to this day, was invented in 1897.

Cralle would also become a successful promoter of businesses in Philly, and was the assistant manager of the Afro-American Financial, Accumulating, Merchandise, and Business Association in Pittsburgh.

George Crum

Ever heard the story of how potato chips were invented to spite a customer at a restaurant? George Crum was the chef at said restaurant, the Moon Lake Lodge resort in Saratoga Springs. A customer came in around the summer of 1853 wanting extra-thin French Fries, frustrating Crum to the point he sliced them as thin as possible, fried them in grease, and sent them out.

The chips became a big hit, eventually becoming known as “Saratoga Chips.” While Crum never patented the dish, he did open his own restaurant, “Crumbs House,” that served a basket of them at every table.

Chips wouldn’t become a grocery product until 1895, and the concept of bagged chips didn’t show up until 1926.

Joseph Lee

Joseph Lee was one of the most influential people when it came to industrializing the way we make bread.

Having worked in a bakery from a young age, Lee eventually became the owner of two restaurants in Boston, as well as a hotel and a catering company. Looking to find a way to minimize bread waste, he eventually invented a machine that would convert day-old bread into breadcrumbs. Patented in 1895, he later sold the rights and the breadcrumb maker would spread across the world.

That wasn’t Lee’s only invention, however. He would later patent the idea for an automatic bread maker that mixed and kneaded the dough, the basis to the same devices (think, stand mixers) that we still use in our kitchens today.

Lloyd Hall

Lloyd Hall is considered to be one of the pioneers in the world of food chemistry. A pharmaceutical chemist for Griffith Laboratories in Chicago who completed graduate school, Hall would be awarded over 100 patents and received multiple honorary doctorate degrees for his work.

Hall’s main area of work came around the development of techniques to preserve food. Some of his most revolutionary patents included using  “flash-dried” salt crystals that revolutionized meatpacking. He also introduced the use of antioxidants to prevent the spoilage of fats and oils in baked goods, and developed a process known as “Ethylene Oxide Vacugas,” which could control the growth of bacteria and molds in food.

John Standard

John Standard was an inventor instrumental in modernizing two pieces of kitchen equipment that virtually every household has today: stoves and refrigerators.

Refrigeration was a concept that was being researched as early as the 1830s, but mainly focused on using some sort of power. Standard’s improvement to the fridge, patented in 1891, was an unpowered design that used a manually filled ice chamber as the central cooling unit.

Standard also made significant upgrades to the oil-powered stove, patenting one with a space-saving design in 1889 that could be used in applications like buffet-style meals on trains.

Frederick McKinley Jones

If you’ve worked in the food industry or any commercial transportation that required keeping stuff cold, you’ve likely seen the Thermo King brand somewhere in your lifetime. Frederick McKinley Jones was the founder of that company, and inventor of the first automated refrigerated system for trucks.

A skilled and gifted electrician and mechanic, Jones had patents for sixty different inventions across a wide variety of fields, including the portable X-ray machine, motion picture devices, and even medical storage units.

He’s most known for the Thermo King, the refrigerated system he invented, because it allowed for fresh goods from around the world to be transported and sold in stores. Jones is essentially responsible for not just all refrigerated transport globally, but also the entire frozen food industry.

Thomas Downing

Known as the “Oyster King of New York,” Downing was most known for his 19th-century restaurant, Thomas Downing’s Oyster House. His oyster hall was legendary, with prominent figures like Queen Victoria and Charles Dickens having dined there.

Downing was born a free man, as his parents were freed by plantation owner John Downing. He grew up and was educated on Chincoteague Island in Virginia, and eventually made his way up to New York following the war of 1812. Like many other African-Americans in New York, Downing eventually went into the oyster business, opening his own oyster cellar in the 1820s.

Oyster cellars were the universal food of New York at the time (similar to hot dogs today), but many establishments weren’t as trusted as Downing’s. That’s because he specifically catering it towards the fine dining clientele, with a large dining area, carpet, and chandeliers gracing the hall. Elaborate dishes like oyster-stuffed turkeys and a pan roast made with wine and chili graced the menu.

This, at the time, meant that African-Americans couldn’t eat Downing’s restaurant, but few were aware of the double life he led. Downing’s basement was a key stop in the Underground Railroad, and as an abolitionist, he helped many that were escaping the South in search of freedom. He also led political efforts, funding schools for African-American children and leading the fight in desegregating New York’s trolley system.

Downing was so regarded in New York that when he passed away in 1866, the New York City Chamber of Commerce closed so that its members could attend his funeral.

Norbert Rillieux

The sugar industry in the United States has Norbert Rillieux to thank for allowing them to become so powerful. Were it not for his inventions, making sugar would still be a time-consuming and dangerous process.

Originally, the sugar refinement process, known as “The Jamaica Train,” was dangerous and expensive. Laborers (usually slaves) would transfer ladles of scalding hot sugar case juice between open boiling kettles, often resulting in scalding and terrible burns (anyone who’s worked with sugar knows how painful it can be). The result was a dark syrup that was molded into cones and dried before being sold.

From  1834-1843, Rillieux developed a system for refining and crystallizing sugar using a much safer and controlled method, allowing the United States to eventually dominate the sugar market. His process is still used today for freeze-drying food, pigments, and other food products.

George Washington Carver

Many people know George Washington Carver for the myriad of products he invented that utilized peanuts or sweet potatoes. As an agricultural scientist working in the South, he was also a man responsible for helping revitalize much of the economy in that region.

Working out of the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, Carver was a teacher and a researcher from the late 1890s until his passing in 1943. An early pioneer of crop rotation, he encouraged farmers to plant peanuts in the soil after harvest to replenish lost nutrients, helping farmers improve not just their livelihoods, but their diets as well.

Carver’s research and work focused on revitalizing soil and maximizing plant production while keeping costs to a minimum. Outside of agriculture, he was a massive promoter of racial equality, and massive advocate of peanut oil as a potential treatment for polio. While never proven, the claim was widely circulated in media, and eventually turned into a “Peanuts for Polio” fundraising effort that helped raise money for medical care and benefits for children affected with the disease.

Following Carver’s passing, then-Senator Harry S. Truman sponsored legislation that would lead to the construction of the George Washington Carver National Monument. It was the first-ever national memorial to an African-American.

Illustrations in this piece provided by Sam Brosnan.

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Hit-Or-Miss Recipes

Salvador Dali Published A Cookbook That’s Full Of Intriguing Recipes

Photo: SoDelicious

If the kitchen routine has got you down, why not try a surrealist cookbook? It sounds like a surreal suggestion, but it’s not. The Salvador Dali cookbook has legitimate recipes that might make you fall in love with food all over again. 

For the first time in over four decades, we have a chance to take in how Salvador Dali saw meals. The book is called “Les Diners de Gala”, which in French means “Gala’s Dinners”. If you’re not up to date on your Dali trivia, then you should know that Gala was Dali’s wife and the two had an intense relationship over the years. I bet their dinners were something truly fascinating to behold.

The cookbook was first released in 1973 and reissued recently for the first time in decades. So what kind of things did Dali include in his cookbook? There are 136 recipes distributed over 12 chapters. The 10th chapter is devoted exclusively to aphrodisiacs and we certainly cannot argue with that. The Salvador Dali is an art piece in and of itself because the artist created plenty of strange collages and illustrations for it.

Why the Salvador Dali cookbook might be for you

Food is an inspiration to us all and you can see how much Dali loved food by the artwork. Especially since when he was six years old, one of the world’s most known artists planned on becoming a chef. The illustrations feature mountains of crawfish, eerie “progress” strips about slaying frogs (to make some Frog Pasties – one of the recipes) and also portraits with the artist and fancy chefs at the time.

The dinner parties Dali and Gala had were extravagant affairs where guests were meant to dress in outrageous costumes and live animals would wander around the tables.

So if you want to try to make some “Thousand Year Old Eggs”, “Veal Cutlets Stuffed With Snails”, and “Toffee with Pine Cones”, you now know what the best source for that is! Happy surreal cooking experiences!

Related Links:


Article by Ruxandra Grecu from So Delicious. View the original article here.

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Film/Television Products

AMC Is Launching An Official WALKING DEAD Cookbook And Survival Guide

Love or hate the past few seasons of The Walking Dead, you have to appreciate the world they built over their seven-year run. While fans eagerly await for the premiere of the eithth season, AMC is giving them a little something to chew on to tide over their walker-loving appetites.

AMC has partnered up with Insight Editions to launch The Walking Dead: The Official Cookbook and Survival Guide.

Inside the cookbook are more than 60 recipes covering breakfast, dinner, drinks, and desserts. Some of the entries are taken straight from the television series such as Carol’s Peletier’s Cookies and Daryl’s Deer Stew.

Yum.

Because a cookbook is useless if you don’t know how to survive in this new world, the book also features tips on hunting and foraging in the event we ever witness a zombie apocalypse.

The Walking Dead: The Official Cookbook and Survival Guide is scheduled to arrive at bookstores in October. The publisher stresses that no humans were harmed in the marking of this culinary resource.

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Cravings Recipes Video

This Bro’s Pork Belly Tacos Will Cradle You Lovingly To Sleep

Pork belly is one of our favorite proteins to work with. The fatty, juicy cuts of meat are so versatile, the possibilities of what you can create with them are endless. Usually, though, we just fry them up and eat them between two slices of Wonder Bread. Luckily, Josh Scherer is a little more creative than we are and whipped up these amazing tacos.

The man known as Culinary Bro-Down came up with a pork belly tacos with fish sauce caramel recipe that’s near and dear to our hearts. Especially since we’ve been chasing the fish sauce caramel dragon for a while now.

Check out the pork belly tacos recipe video:

No doubt, this dish touches upon all the basic tastes the human tongue is capable of. Scherer is good at titillating us like that.

If you’re trying to get your hands on that pork belly taco recipe, don’t sweat. Scherer’s cookbook: The Culinary Bro-Down Cookbook: Recipes for a Dope-Ass Life is now available to order on Amazon. Also, be sure to check out Scherer’s Cheeseburger Pudding recipe.

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Cravings Culture Products Recipes

There’s An Officially Rad Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Pizza Cookbook Coming Out

Practically everyone here at the Foodbeast office grew up with a brother. Except me, that is. Growing up, however, I found four siblings I could always look up to. Four brothers named after Renaissance artists who followed a strict diet of pizza.

You know which ones.

Insight Editions is releasing an official Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Pizza Cookbook this May.

The cookbook doesn’t only feature pizza recipes. In fact, there’s a variety of items like smoothies, potstickers, and cookies.

You can find the cookbook available in book stores and online retailers beginning May 9 for a suggested retail price of $24.99.

While not officially from the cookbook and instead just from a kid with a dream and a love for pizza, check out the 24 recipes I created a few years back inspired by the Turtles.

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Hit-Or-Miss

11 Adorable Food Gadgets That Your Valentine Will Love

There’s officially less than a week before Valentine’s Day, which means you probably still need to buy a gift, make reservations, and maybe even find a Valentine. So, in order to help you through this process, this gift guide should assist in finding something truly unique that will stand out more than some cheap candy — and will probably taste better too.

This year, instead of relying solely on the florist or a gourmet chocolatier — find something that will capture the essence of love, while also serving a physical purpose. For those of us caught up in the Valentine’s Day gift struggle to swoon your favorite foodie, these easy to find, food-centric gift ideas won’t break the bank, and will show Bae how much you care.

Covered X & O Silicone Ice Cube Tray 

11154500_Covered Silicone Ice Cube Tray -XO's

Looking for a cute and classy way to tell your lover, you want to XOXO them all over? Using this awesome ice tray from Bed Bath and Beyond, might be the easiest way. As they say, love is in the air on Valentine’s Day — and now it will be in your drink! $12.99, online only. 

Heart-Shaped Measuring Cups

Heartshaped Measuring cups

Although these heart-shaped measuring cups won’t hold flowers, they’ll definitely hold flour. These romantic, yet functional kitchen utensils are the perfect gift for the adorable baker or chef in your life. This is also the next best way to tell your sweetheart that you’re in love with their cooking.

Food-Themed Enamel Pins 

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Do you love pizza more than your Valentine, but can’t admit it? That’s okay because these adorable enamel pins by The Sleepy Mountain will be the best way show them what’s most important. $10

Peas in a Pod Salt and Pepper Shaker 

Screen Shot 2017-02-08 at 6.52.54 PM

The genius minds who create the adorable things at Smoko Inc. usually have the perfect gift for any occasion. While some Valentine’s Day gifts might seem a bit cheesy, Smoko’s Peas in a Pod Salt & Pepper Shaker will always remind your Valentine of the special bond you share — and will help make every meal just a bit more delicious. $19.99

Adorable Emoji Portable Chargers

wu_smittenkitten
Is your darling always complaining about their phone dying? WattzUp Power is the portable problem solver. Right now, they have super cute designs, like the Smitten Kitten emoji that are purrfect for Valentine’s Day.  But, wait — how is this related to food? Think about it, now you’ll never have to worry about your battery dying if you have to call for some delivery.  $39.99

An Awesome Nacho Cookbook

Kristen KishNachosinaBag
We all know that nachos are awesome. What’s even better is a whole cookbook on nacho recipes can that easily be recreated for any occasion  — you know, not just one time on a certain night in February — hint, hint. But, that should at least give you some ideas. ¡Buenos Nachos! by Gina Hamadey, $25

Can You Feel My Love Buzz?

You're Intoxicating
Let’s face it, there’s nothing wrong with having a few drinks on Valentine’s Day, but what about after? Your lover will always crack a smile every time he or she reaches to crack open a bottle. $22.00, 

Food Grade Coconut Bath Soak 

CoconutMilk_BathSoakBesides food, the next best thing about Valentine’s Day is getting pampered. Herbivore’s food grade coconut milk bath soak combines the best of both! $18.00

Chocolate Melting Pot

Chocolate melt
Chocolate dipped strawberries are super delicious, but it’s been done over and over again. Instead of spending hundreds of dollars on a box of week old strawberries, you can show your Valentine how resourceful and creative you are when you bust out this chocolate melting pot and create some chocolate dipped treats of your own. $17.99

Heart-Shaped Tea Infuser

Heart Shaped Tea InfuserValentine’s Day is only one day a year, so why spend money on something that’s just going to get thrown out in a week. This heart-shaped tea infuser will allow your favorite tea lover to feel the warmth of your love while brewing cup after cup of delicious homemade tea. $6.21

Cooking Set with Valentine’s Day Recipe E-book

Vday Cooking set
This might be the best thing on this list. Before you spend your life savings on an overpriced steak dinner, it might be easier — and less expensive — to learn how to cook for once in your life. This cooking set comes with two e-books, one specifically for Valentine’s Day recipes. $17.48

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Hit-Or-Miss

This Condom Cookbook Has 11 Safe-Sex-Inducing Recipes

Condom-Cookbook

If you look hard and deep enough on the Internet, you’re going to find some pretty disturbing stuff. Take this condom cookbook for example. No, it’s nothing as crazy as a cookbook-shaped condom. That’s just ridiculous. It’s actually a book that incorporates condoms into the cooking process.

For anyone curious enough, the book is titled “Condom Meals I Want to Make for You.” The book is used as a means to promote safe sex and also show that a condom is much more than a contraceptive device. Water balloon fight, anyone? Co-created by manga writer Kyosuke Kagami, the eBook relies heavily on condom-based recipes. Eleven recipes boast such names as “Condom Escargot Cooked with Butter” and “Condom Meat Stuffing.” No joke.

The Japanese book is meant to showcase the durability of condoms with hopes of incorporating the use of the contraceptive in future cooking methods. Kagami also wrote the book as a way to raise awareness about condoms and sexually transmitted diseases. Japanese men are apparently the “third-worst” condom users in the world.

“Condom Meals I Want to Make for You” is available as an eBook through Amazon for 250 yen ($2.30 US).

So…we’re assuming these are unscented and un-lubricated, right?

H/T Kotaku

Categories
Hit-Or-Miss

Orange Is The New Black: The Cookbook Coming This Fall, Pornstache Not Included

oitnb-cookbook-cover-first-look

Earlier this month Netflix released season two of their original series, Orange Is The New Black. The show has become so incredibly popular that they have a food truck making stops across the country serving up crazy pyes and soft serve. With the majority of fans binge watching all thirteen episodes in a 72 hour period, it’s no wonder why the hit show is creating an official cookbook to bring a little Litchfield into kitchens everywhere.

The cookbook will feature references from the show such as Red’s Chicken Kiev, Miss Claudette’s Coconut Cake, and Prison Punch. Besides prison recipes, the book will also feature a prison glossary, homeopathic remedies (like Piper’s Pepper Lotion for Red’s back), and some dishes from the inmates’ pre-Litchfield days, maybe we’ll actually get to see Red’s famous piroshkis.

Just like the pain of having to wait until season 3, the cookbook won’t hit shelves until October 2014. In the mean time, feel free to drown your sorrows in some season 1 recipes, like the Prison Pad Thai or Cell Caramel Lattes.

H/T + PicThx Eater